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A role in a community is a prescribing behaviour that can be performed any number of times concurrently or successively. A role can be either active (typically associated with a human actor) or passive (typically associated with a non-human actor, e.g. software or hardware components).
Active roles are identified in relation to people associated with a research infrastructure:
An individual may be a member of more than one community by undertaking different roles.
Passive roles are identified with subsystems, subsystem components, and hardware facilities. Active roles interact with passive roles to achieve their objectives.
Research Infrastructure is the main entity being modeled in any ENVRI RM specification, additionally RI is a special role which can be part of the communities. This role is defined as follows.
Research Infrastructure: An active or passive role, which is the conglomeration of research resources providing some subset of data acquisition, data curation, data publishing, data processing and data use functionality to a research community.
The main objectives of the data acquisition community is to bring measurements into the system. Consider a typical data acquisition scenario: A measurement and monitoring model is designed by designers based on the requirements of environmental scientists. Such a design decides what data is to be collected and what metadata is to be associated with it, e.g., experimental information and instrument conditions. Technicians configure and calibrate a sensor or a sensor network to satisfy the experiment specifications. In the case where human sensors are to be used, observers or measurers input the measures to the system, e.g., by using mobile devices. Data collectors interact with a data acquisition subsystem to prepare the data or control the flow of data in order to automatically collect and transmit the data.
The following roles are identified in a data acquisition community:
The behaviours of the data acquisition community is described at SV Community Behaviours.
The data curation community responds to provide quality data products and maintain the data resources. Consider a typical data curation scenario: when data is being imported into a curation subsystem, a curator will perform the quality checking of the scientific data. Unique identifiers will be assigned to the qualified data, which will then be properly catalogued by associating necessary metadata, and stored or archived. The main human roles interacting with or maintaining a data curation subsystem are data curators who manage the data and storage administrators who manage the storage facilities. Upon registering a digital object in a repository, its persistent identifier (PID) and the repository name or IP address is registered with a globally available system of identification services (PID service). Users may subsequently present the PID to an PID service to learn the network names or addresses of repositories in which the corresponding digital object is stored. Here, we use a more general term "PID" instead of "handle", and identify the key roles involved in the data curation process.
We identified the following roles in this community:
Data Curation Subsystem: the data curation subsystem is a passive role of the data curation community. It is the part of the research infrastructure which stores, manages and ensures access to all persistent data and metadata produced within the infrastructure.
PID Service was called PID Generator, howerver, the analysis of the Identification and Citation practices made evident that the generation can be done inside the RI (by PID Manager), shared between the RI and the PID Service, or completely delegated to a PID Service. Consequently the names were changed after version 2.1 of the ENVRI RM.
The PID generator does not disappear completely, it is a refinement (specialisation/subclass) which can be implemented by PID service or the PID Manager
The behaviours of the data curation community are described at SV Community Behaviours#beh_cur.
The objectives of the data publishing community are to publish data and assist discovery and access. We consider the scenarios described by Kahn's data publication model [ Bibliography#ref34]: an originator, i.e., a user with digital material to be made available for public access, makes the material into a digital object. A digital object is a data structure whose principal components are digital material, or data, plus a unique identifier for this material (and, perhaps, other material). To get a unique identifier, the user requests one from an authorised PID service. A user may then deposit the digital object in one or more repositories, from which it may be made available to others (subject, to the particular item’s terms and conditions, etc.).
The published data are to be discovered and accessed by data consumers. A semantic mediator is used to facilitate the heterogeneous data discovery.
In summary, the following roles are involved in the data publication community:
Semantic Mediator: A passive role, which is a system or middleware facilitating semantic mapping (i.e., executing mapping and translation rules), discovery and integration of heterogeneous data.
Data Publishing Subsystem: In the Science Viewpoint, the data publishing subsystem represents a passive role of the data publication community. It is the part of the research infrastructure enabling the discovery and retrieval of scientific data. The access to this subsystem could require authorisation at different levels for different roles.
The behaviours of the data publishing community are described at SV Community Behaviours#beh_cur..
The data processing community provides various application services such as data analysis, mining, simulation and modelling, visualisation, and experimental software tools, in order to facilitate the use of the data. We consider scenarios of service oriented computing paradigm which is adopted by the ENVRI implementation model, and identify the key roles as below. These concepts are along the lines of the existing standards such as OASIS Reference Model for Service Oriented Architecture.
The behaviours of the data processing community are described at SV Community Behaviours#beh_ser.
The main role in the data use community is a user who is the ultimate consumer of data, applications and services. Depending on the purposes of use, a user can be one of the following active roles:
The behaviours of the data use community are described at SV Community Behaviours#beh_usa.